Online Resources

Valuable online resources in Classics for reference, study aid, and research are so numerous that we have tried to limit ourselves here to sites likely to be particularly useful to students, including sites that can serve as starting points for further research and exploration. Sites are listed in two categories below: For Students of Greek and Latin and For All Students. For still more, see the list of Organizations, many of which provide or link to useful resources, sometimes including their own journals or newsletters.

For guidance in using and evaluating internet resources, consult the Classics faculty, librarians at Sawyer, and the Sawyer Library sites A-Z Databases and Research Guides. Note also that some of the most important online resources have a paywall and are fully accessible to Williams students, faculty and staff only because Sawyer Library or other departments of the college maintain subscriptions or oversee the sites. To gain full access to these resources while off-campus, you will need to use a proxy server.

For Students of Greek and Latin

Liddell and Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon (via Perseus)

Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary (via Perseus)

Autenrieth’s Homeric Dictionary (via Perseus)

Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar (via Perseus)

Gildersleeve’s Greek Syntax (via Perseus)

eLatin eGreek eLearn links to a great variety of on-line materials for studying ancient Greek and Latin, particularly at the introductory and intermediate levels.

Thesaurus Linguae Graecae has digitalized most literary texts from Homer to 1453 C.E.

For All Students

Perseus, the single most important site for all things Greek and for many things Roman. An extensive collection of images and of Greek and Latin texts,translations, essays and many other useful tools for studying ancient Greek and Latin language, literature, and culture.

Electronic Resources for Classicists: The Second Generation. A well organized, well maintained, and particularly helpful collection of direct links to collections of  images, electronic publications, sites devoted to specific topics and individual authors, course materials, bibliographies, fonts and software, and much more.

Stoa, a consortium for online publication in the humanities that links directly to a number of valuable sites, for instance: Suda-On-Line, Ancient City of Athens, Demos (on the workings of democracy in classical Athens); Metis (QTVR panoramas of Greek  archaeological sites and monuments).

The Perseus Atlas.

Hellenic History on the Internet, a useful overview of Hellenic history and culture from the Stone Age to the present

Athenian Agora Excavations, up-to-date information on the excavations; maps, diagrams, QTVR virtual reality movies, and links to very useful publications, like “Pots and Pans in the Athenian Agora” or “Socrates in the Athenian Agora,” that are available online and in downloadable pdf’s.

Ancient City of Athens, images with essays and links to information about Athens.

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites.

The Perseus Site Catalogue, which extends and updates the material in PECS.

The Visual Resources Center of Williams Department of Art, with links to ARTstor and other resources.

Labyrinth: an Online WWW Server for Medieval Studies.


More Sites

Most of the numerous sites dedicated to individual authors, to specialized topics, areas, and methods of study, or to particular historical periods, peoples or languages can be discovered via sites like those above. Here is a sampling of sites you could quickly find:

Augustine Page

The Cicero Homepage

Philo of Alexandria

Plutarch’s home on the Web

Homosexuality in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook of Basic Documents. The first two chapters of the book edited by T. K. Hubbard, text and images.

Egyptology, links to e-resources from the UCLA Egyptology Department.

Antique Roman Dishes (food and recipes)

Ancient Scripts

The Papyrology Homepage

Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts

The American Numismatic Society provides a database on Greek and Roman coins.

The Virtual Catalogue of Roman Coins

The Roman Numismatic Gallery


Some of the sites listed above provide or link to bibliographies, but the following include some major, particularly useful resources for bibliography:

L’Annee philologique, an index to work published since 1924 in fields related to the language, literature, history and culture of ancient Greece and Rome, is the standard bibliographical tool for research in Classics.  The online electronic version covers the years 1949-2005.

Gnomon on-line, for recent books and journal articles in Classics.

TOCS-IN offers a searchable database of articles of interest to classicists from 1984 on.

Bryn Mawr Classical Review publishes online reviews (often review essays) of recent books in all areas of Classics. As an online journal which publishes unsolicited reviews, BMCR may publish several reviews of the same book and sometimes generates a bit of back-and-forth among reviewers, and it publishes reviews of books likely to be of wide interest in a more timely fashion than traditional journals do, as well as more reviews on esoteric books.

Index of published volumes of ANRW (Aufsteig und Niedergang der romischen Welt).

The On-Line Survey of Audio-Visual Resources for Classics.

Pinax On-Line, an annotated list of bibliographies on the ancient Greek world.

For more bibliographies on Greek and Roman literature, history and culture, and on individual authors and specific topics, go to More Online Bibliographies.

More Online Bibliographies

Greek and Roman literature

Greek authors

Roman authors

Bronze Age

Culture and society

Women in the ancient world

Religion, ritual, and magic

Science and technology

Greek history

Roman history

Greek and Latin language